Elixinol has been around for a long time. They are based in Sidney, Australia and the United States of America in the state of Colorado. Paul Benheim is the company founder and a major player in the CBD industry, even before there was such an industry as it is now. Elixinol has been around for 20 years, talk about a head start. They ship their products all over the world and they have distribution centers in the United States, Australia, and Europe. While we normally insist you use a company which is based in and sourced in the United States of America, we make an exception for Elixinol because they have a very good reputation and a long track record.
Paul Benheim is of the class of hempp researchers who claims to have looked all over the world for the best strains of hemp. He has produced video of himself in various locales, testing different strains of hemp and/or marijuana so he seems fairly legit. Elixnol’s customer service is said to be exceptional as well. We have had trouble accessing their website today, so there’s a possibility they could use some help on the technical side of things but there could be a glitch elsewhere instead.
|Is it CBD oil?||Yes.|
|Old, trusted company?||Absolutely. 20 years of service.|
|Contains verified therapeutic levels of CBD?||Yes.|
|Sourced in the United States?||Yes.|
|Sourced in Europe?||Yes.|
|Certified Organic in the US?||Yes.|
|Certified Organic by European Commission?||Yes.|
|Lab tested in the United States?||Yes.|
|3rd Party Testing?||Yes.|
|Do they tell what percentage CBD in product?||Yes.|
This is the first time we have had all affirmative answers for these test questions.
Advantages of Elixinol Hemp Oil
Elixinol is based in Australia and has a major base also in Colorado in the United States of America. They also have a large presence in the European market.
Forbes magazine lists Elixinol as one of the top CBD companies in 2017, comprising as much as 2% of the entire CBD market.
|Green Roads CBD oil 100mg||Green Roads Daily Dose 7 Day Bundle||Green Roads CBD oil 250mg||Green Roads CBD oil 350mg|
Elixinol grows its hemp all over the world, discovering and utilizing the best locations to produce a superior hemp product. They test their products for levels of cannabinoids and other valuable substances, as well as testing to make sure toxins and heavy metals are not present. They provide lab analyses and batch numbers with their products so that they and their customers can trace any batch and know the testing results. Their products are said to be reasonably priced, especially for the superior quality that you get.
Elixinol has great reviews and a great reputation.
This certificate of analysis is for their CBD Hemp Oil Drops 300 mg Cinnamint. Parents have preferred this formulation for their children due to its acceptable taste. The CBD levels are clearly stated and levels of heavy metals are tested as well. You can see that the THC level is low as well, demonstrating that this formulation will not make you high.
Elixinol Hemp prices and products
Elxinol has a plethora of products from CBD hemp oil cinnamint to topical balms.
|CBD Capsules||Hemp CBD Oil Tinctures||Hemp CBD Oil Liposomes||X-Pen 1000 mg CBD Oil Oral Applicators||CBD Topical Balms||Hemp Seeds and Protein Powder||CBD Dog Treats|
|CBD Hemp Oil Capsules 900 MG of CBD||Respira Hemp Oil 300 mg – Grape Mint Flavor CBD oil||Hemp Oil Liposomes 1000mg – Citrus Twist||X-Pen 1000 mg of CBD Hemp Extract|
|CBD Hemp Balm||Hemp Protein Powder 16 oz||CBD Dog Treats – Hemp Oil Edibites with Peanut Butter & Banana|
|CBD Hemp Oil Capsules 450 MG of CBD||Respira Hemp Oil 300 mg – Natural Flavor CBD oil||Hemp Oil Liposomes 300mg – Citrus Twist||CBD Lip Balm||Hemp seeds 8 oz||Large Breed CBD Dog Treats – Peanut Butter Banana Edibites|
|Respira Hemp Oil 600 mg – Grape Mint Flavor CBD oil||Large Breed CBD Dog Treats – Blueberry Cranberry Edibites|
|Respira Hemp Oil 600 mg – Natural Flavor CBD oil||CBD Dog Treats – Hemp Oil Edibites with Blueberry & Cranberry|
|CBD Tincture – Hemp Oil Drops 3600 MG CBD – Natural Flavor|
|CBD Tincture – Hemp Oil Drops 3600 MG CBD – Cinnamint Flavor|
|CBD Tincture – Hemp Oil Drops 300 MG CBD – Cinnamint|
|CBD Tincture – Hemp Oil Drops 300 MG CBD – Natural Flavor|
|Extrato Rico Em CBD Cannabidiol – 5000 mg – Brazil Only|
The products may have the following ingredients:
|Green Roads CBD oil 100mg||Green Roads Daily Dose 7 Day Bundle||Green Roads CBD oil 250mg||Green Roads CBD oil 350mg|
- Organic CO2 extracted cannabidiol
- Hemp extract
- Elixinol Hemp oil
- Flavors such as cinnamint and natural
- Elixinol cbd terpenes like myrcene
- MCT oil
The active ingredient in each product is cannabidiol, the most therapeutic cannabinoid in hemp and marijuana plants. After CBD, THC, the more familiar cannabinoid, is the second most therapeutic compound in hemp. Myrcene and limonene are terpenoids that provide fruit flavor and potentiation to the cannabinoids. Hemp extract also contains hemp oil which has healthy fatty acids in it which aid in the therapeutic effects. Lastly, medium chain triglycerides provide a type of fat which is processed quickly by the body and provides energy.
How to Use
CBD can be taken by vape and this is a very popular method. However, Elixinol has no vape products. This is likely because Elixinol has been an industry leader since before vaping became popular or was even invented. Vaping has not been proven to be safe and there is some concern that it can cause a condition known as pop-corn lung, although there have been few if any reports of such. Most likely, Elixinol is waiting for vaping to be verified safe and effective though scientific studies before it jumps on the bandwagon.
Elixinol does not sell dabbing products and concentrates. Elixinol does not try to make its hemp products mimic marijuana products. Its product line again, was out before these practices became popular.
Elixinol sells oils and tinctures which can be added to foods. This is particularly important when you need to treat a child with CBD. A spoonful of sugar makes the medicine go down.
Elixinol has topical balms containing CBD. Its oils can also be applied topically.
Elixinol has tinctures of grape, mint, and cinnamint flavors. This can be added to foods or taken sublingually.
The dosage you will take of Elixinol products will depend on the product and on your medical condition. Elixinol products are very clearly labeled as to how much CBD they contain versus how much of the other ingredients are contained in the product. This is the sign of a trustworthy company. Bad companies will try to confuse you about how much is hemp extract and how much is CBD. One particularly bad product had only 33 mg of hemp extract per serving and did not even list the amount of CBD alone. Look for products like Elixinol which are clearly labeled.
Many people use CBD for anxiety and stress. You can start with about 15 mg of CBD from Elixinol capsules which contain: 15mg of CBD and 375mg of hemp oil per capsule. As you can see, they clearly tell you how much CBD, and how much hemp oil. CBD needs to be contained in fat, like hemp oil, to be fully activated.
How it Works
Elixinol’s products have cannabidiol as the main active ingredient. Cannabidiol is known to have many mechanisms of action. We list the receptors in the central nervous system which cannabidiol binds to below. These include cannabinoid receptors, serotonin receptors, and orphan receptors which are related to cannabinoid receptors by their structure. CBD also modulates opioid receptors by which it affects pain perception. These are not the only receptors cannabidiol may bind to or affect. Cannabidiol has been shown to have the following effects:
- Anti-cancer (Massi, Solinas, Cinquina, & Parolaro, 2013).
- Anti-infarction (Hayakawa, et al., 2004).
- Anti-psychotic (Iseger, Bossong, & Bossong, 2015).
- Fights migration of cancer cells (Kapoor, 2013).
- Fights cerebral infarction by modulating serotonin (Mishima, et al., 2005).
- May fight neurodegeneration (Iuvone, Esposito, Filippis, Scuderi, & Steardo, 2009).
- May fight autoimmune diabetes (Weiss, et al., Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, 2008)
- Can fight memory loss caused by marijuana thc (Morgan, Schafer, Freeman, & Curran, 2010). This means that medical marijuana should be enriched with extra cannabidiol to avoid memory loss and psychotic effects
- Reduces anxiety in the right doses (Fusar-Poli, et al., 2009).
- Anti-seizure activity, known about in 1973 (Izquierdo, Orsingher, & Berardi, 1973).
- Wakefulness promoting, modulation of circadian rhythms (Murillo-Rodríguez, et al., 2014).
- Vasorelaxation (Stanley, Hind, Tufarelli, & O’Sullivan, 2015).
- Modulates sleep (Murillo-Rodríguez, Millán-Aldaco, Palomero-Rivero, Mechoulam, & Drucker-Colín, 2006).
- Attenuates adverse effects of THC (Henquet & Kuepper, 2010).
- May fight colon cancer (Aviello, et al., 2012).
- May help in colitis (Borrelli, et al., 2009).
- May reduce immune system inflammatory responses (Kozela, et al., 2010).
- Neuroprotective (Hampson, Grimaldi, Axelrod, & Wink, 1998).
- Prevents diabetes (Weiss, et al., Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice, 2006)
- Fights myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (Durst, et al., 2007).
- Inhibiting angiogenesis which feeds cancers (Solinas, et al., 2012).
Cannabidiol works by binding to various receptor targets throughout the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Acting at these receptor sites, it exerts influence on the metabolism of various neurotransmitter systems. It seems like ‘snake oil’ that one compound can have all the beneficial effects listed above; however, cannabinoid receptors exist throughout the nervous system and it is known that such a ubiquitous receptor must be involved in nearly everything the nervous system does, just like serotonin and dopamine receptors. Dopamine affects pleasure, but also pain. Anxiety and also relaxation. Heart contraction and blood pressure. All of these systems are integrated so cannabinoid receptors will indeed have effects on all of these systems and exogenous cannabinoids from plants can definitely have therapeutic effects which are extensive.
|Mechanisms of action of CBD|
These actions produce anti-inflammatory, anti-pain, and anti-seizure effects which can be beneficial to address a range of discomforts.
Manufacturer, Support, and Certificates:
Elixinol is the brain child of Paul Benheim. He originally noticed that hemp seeds had a great profile of fatty acids, the health benefits of which were just becoming known, after a great demonization of fat in the United States, goaded on by interests in the grain and sugar industries. Mr. Benheim then began traveling all over the world seeking great hemp varieties and places to grow hemp.
Elixinol products are tested by an in-house lab and by third-party labs to ensure quality and the absence of toxins and adulterants.
You can contact Elixinol at:
US Customer Service: 844-804-3504
580 Burbank St, Unit 155
Broomfield CO, 80020
7 Wilson Business Park,
Manchester, England M40 8NN
UK Phone Number : +44 203 129 1932
You can fill out a form at: https://elixinol.com/contact/ to contact customer service.
Standout Features and Negatives
Elixinol is the real deal.
There are many ways in which Elixinol stands out. The first is that this is an old hemp company that was selling hemp products long before it was considered cool. This gives them a massive head start and they have absolutely capitalized on that and captured a full 2% of the CBD market.
The leadership team of Elixinol seems to be under expert conditions of management and cooperation. This may be the effect of CEO and founder Paul Benheim. As well, Elixinol has partners including farmers all over the world such as in Europe, Australia, and the United States. They contract with several hemp farms under strict quality regulation to ensure the health and effectiveness of their hemp.
Product development of Elixinol products is proficiently carried out. They do not have unproven products like vape juices which contain little or no CBD. They have only the tried and true, proven cannabidiol and hemp products with very clear labeling as to how much CBD it contains and how much hemp oil it contains. This is a sticking point. The difference between a legit provider and an illegitimate one is that the illegitimate company will try to confuse you as to how much CBD is contained versus how much hemp oil. That way they can fill the product with cheap oil containing little cbd and call it ‘cbd hemp oil’. Elixinol doesn’t play these games because they are the real deal.
Does CBD have any side effects?
CBD is unlikely to have many side effects under 300 mg daily. Above that dosage, one should consult a doctor.
Before we look at the side effects, let’s look at the safety. Consider these facts:
|CBD Safety facts|
(Bergamaschi, Queiroz, Zuardi, & Crippa, 2011)
|Possible Negative Side Effects of CBD|
In general, CBD is safe and well-tolerated. Doses above 300 mg should have a doctor’s monitoring.
Pros and cons
|Pros Elixinol CBD Oil||Cons of Elixinol CBD products|
Elixinol CBD Oil reviews
Review rating: A. “Elixinol capsules are good…”
This reddit user trusts Elixinol but doesn’t provide any details.
Review rating: B. “That was an okay brand…”
This user says Elixinol is an ‘okay’ product.
Review Rating: A. “He is happy each afternoon.”
We always try to check with mothers who are giving their children CBD for medical issues. This mother feels her son can better tolerate Elixinol than Lazarus. He calls it ‘the good one’, presumably to indicate the flavor is better than the competitor.
Review rating: A. “It is good!”
Like other users, this user recommends Elixinol cinnamint oil due to it having a flavor which will be accepted by children.
Questions and answers:
- Is CBD the same was marijuana?
Absolutely not. CBD is not pot, weed, or cannabis. Exlinol CBD products contain no psychoactive THC, only small amounts of therapeutic thc, with large amounts of therapeutic CBD. Marijuana usually contains THC which is psychoactive, CBD does not.
- Is it legal?
Yes, with some caveats. CBD is legal in most states of the United States as long as it comes along with no more than 0.03% thc. CBD all by itself, is pretty much legal everywhere. However, you could still run into legal problems if you have a cop or court which is hell-bent on charging people with violation of marijuana laws or even laws about where you can buy non-psychoactive hemp. This is rare but has happened on occasion.
CBD is legal in many countries, including:
- Czech Republic,
- Costa Rica,
- South Africa,
- Puerto Rico,
- Northern Ireland,
- Netherlands Antilles,
- Hong Kong,
- S. Virgin Islands,
- Is CBD psychoactive? Will it make you high?
No, and no.
- How long till it expires? Can I store it?
Refrigerated, fresh Elixinol oil will last one year. It can be frozen to store indefinitely.
- What’s the difference between CBD, hemp oil, and hemp extract?
Elixinol CBD is cannabidiol, a cannabinoid extracted from the whole hemp plant. Hemp oil may refer to hemp seed oil, which is produced from seeds only and has low levels of cannabidiol. Hemp extract comes from the full plant. Shady companies will try to pass off hemp seed oil as CBD. Stick with reputable companies like Elixinol.
Elixinol is all that. You will get powerful, natural, healthy CBD, with no tricks. It is carefully regulated and produced with the utmost quality control. Elixinol maintains its integrity by not producing fancy vapes and other products which manufacturers know will not be effective and do not contain therapeutic levels of CBD but they want to rip off customers with fancy but even potentially dangerous products. Elixinol is our choice to get your pharmaceutical grade CBD in an effective form where it is activated and ready to go.
CBD oil disclaimers (please read, this is important):
General Medical Disclaimer: NCSM and its employees and partners do not represent the medical establishment and our information is not a replacement for your doctor’s advice.
FDA Disclaimer: Use of CBD products with the exception of Epidiolex and Sativex have not been evaluated or approved by the FDA. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
Drug Screening Disclaimer: While most CBD products claim to have little to no THC, it is theoretically possible to fail a drug test for THC. This can happen because some CBD products have been tested to have far more THC than represented on the label. Also, CBD is similar in structure to THC.
Aviello, G., Romano, B., Borrelli, F., Capasso, R., Gallo, L., Piscitelli, F., . . . Izzo, A. A. (2012). Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 90(8), 925-934. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00109-011-01206-x
Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent. Current Drug Safety, 6(4), 237-249. Retrieved 11 11, 2018, from http://eurekaselect.com/75752/article
Borrelli, F., Aviello, G., Romano, B., Orlando, P., Capasso, R., Maiello, F., . . . Izzo, A. A. (2009). Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 87(11), 1111-1121. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00109-009-0512-x
Durst, R., Danenberg, H. D., Gallily, R., Mechoulam, R., Meir, K., Grad, E., . . . Lotan, C. (2007). Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. American Journal of Physiology-heart and Circulatory Physiology, 293(6). Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/112090433
Fusar-Poli, P., Crippa, J. A., Bhattacharyya, S., Borgwardt, S., Allen, P., Martín-Santos, R., . . . McGuire, P. (2009). Distinct Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Neural Activation During Emotional Processing. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(1), 95-105. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/4120939
Hampson, A. J., Grimaldi, M., Axelrod, J., & Wink, D. (1998). Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(14), 12068-12073. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc20965
Hayakawa, K., Mishima, K., Abe, K., Hasebe, N., Takamatsu, F., Yasuda, H., . . . Fujiwara, M. (2004). Cannabidiol prevents infarction via the non-CB1 cannabinoid receptor mechanism. Neuroreport, 15(15), 23120-23120. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15640760
Henquet, C., & Kuepper, R. (2010). Does cannabidiol protect against the negative effects of THC. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(4), 259-260. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from http://cannabisclinicians.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/henquet-does-cannabidiol-protect-against-negative-effects-of-thc-brti-j-psychiatr-2010.pdf
Iseger, T. A., Bossong, M. G., & Bossong, M. G. (2015). A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans. Schizophrenia Research, 162(1), 153-161. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0920996415000638
Iuvone, T., Esposito, G., Filippis, D. D., Scuderi, C., & Steardo, L. (2009). Cannabidiol: A Promising Drug for Neurodegenerative Disorders? CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15(1), 65-75. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/192212080
Izquierdo, I. A., Orsingher, O. A., & Berardi, A. C. (1973). Effect of cannabidiol and of other Cannabis sativa compounds on hippocampal seizure discharges. Psychopharmacology, 28(1), 95-102. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4714680
Kapoor, S. (2013). The Inhibitory Effects of Cannabidiol on Systemic Malignant Tumors. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 45(4). Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23544909
Kathmann, M., Flau, K., Redmer, A., Tränkle, C., & Schlicker, E. (2006). Cannabidiol is an allosteric modulator at mu- and delta-opioid receptors. Naunyn-schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, 372(5), 354-361. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00210-006-0033-x
Kozela, E., Pietr, M., Juknat, A., Rimmerman, N., Levy, R., & Vogel, Z. (2010). Cannabinoids Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Differentially Inhibit the Lipopolysaccharide-activated NF-κB and Interferon-β/STAT Proinflammatory Pathways in BV-2 Microglial Cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2120(3), 1616-1626. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from http://jbc.org/content/2120/3/1616.full
Massi, P., Solinas, M., Cinquina, V., & Parolaro, D. (2013). Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(2), 303-50%. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22506672
Mishima, K., Hayakawa, K., Abe, K., Ikeda, T., Egashira, N., Iwasaki, K., & Fujiwara, M. (2005). Cannabidiol Prevents Cerebral Infarction Via a Serotonergic 5-Hydroxytryptamine1A Receptor–Dependent Mechanism. Stroke, 36(5), 1071-1076. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15845890
Morgan, C. J., Schafer, G., Freeman, T. P., & Curran, H. V. (2010). Impact of cannabidiol on the acute memory and psychotomimetic effects of smoked cannabis: naturalistic study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(4), 2120-290. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/201204951
Murillo-Rodríguez, E., Millán-Aldaco, D., Palomero-Rivero, M., Mechoulam, R., & Drucker-Colín, R. (2006). Cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa, modulates sleep in rats. FEBS Letters, 580(18), 4337-4345. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s001451203060012055
Murillo-Rodríguez, E., Sarro-Ramírez, A., Sánchez, D., Mijangos-Moreno, S., Tejeda-Padrón, A., Poot-Aké, A., . . . Arias-Carrión, O. (2014). Potential Effects of Cannabidiol as a Wake-Promoting Agent. Current Neuropharmacology, 12(3), 269-272. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from http://eurekaselect.com/openurl/content.php?genre=article&issn=1570-159x&volume=12&issue=3&spage=269
Solinas, M., Massi, P., Cantelmo, A., Cattaneo, M. G., Cammarota, R., Bartolini, D., . . . Parolaro, D. (2012). Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. British Journal of Pharmacology, 167(6), 1218-1231. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3504989
Song, C., Stevenson, C. W., Guimarães, F. S., & Lee, J. L. (2016). Bidirectional Effects of Cannabidiol on Contextual Fear Memory Extinction. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7, 493. Retrieved 11 11, 2018, from https://frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00493/full
Stanley, C. P., Hind, W. H., Tufarelli, C., & O’Sullivan, S. E. (2015). Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation. Cardiovascular Research, 107(4), 568-5120. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc4540144
Weiss, L., Zeira, M., Reich, S., Har-Noy, M., Mechoulam, R., Slavin, S., & Gallily, R. (2006). Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. Autoimmunity, 39(2), 143-151. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from http://safeaccess.ca/research/pdf/weisscbd_diabetesmiceautoimmunity2006.pdf
Weiss, L., Zeira, M., Reich, S., Slavin, S., Raz, I., Mechoulam, R., & Gallily, R. (2008). Cannabidiol arrests onset of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neuropharmacology, 54(1), 244-249. Retrieved 11 30, 2018, from https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc22704120
- 1 Advantages of Elixinol Hemp Oil
- 2 Lab Analyses
- 3 Elixinol Hemp prices and products
- 4 Ingredients
- 5 How to Use
- 6 How it Works
- 7 Manufacturer, Support, and Certificates:
- 8 Standout Features and Negatives
- 9 Does CBD have any side effects?
- 10 Pros and cons
- 11 Elixinol CBD Oil reviews
- 12 Questions and answers:
- 13 Conclusion
- 14 Bibliography